A New Bluetooth Vulnerability Called "KNOB Poses a Threat to Vulnerable Devices sell cvv good and fresh all country, cc dumps 2021
For users that rely on connectivity resources, it’s not enough that the Internet comes with a long list of security vulnerabilities . As it turns out, Bluetooth can also represent a high risk, as it has possible exploits that can leave users exposed to attacks.
According to security researchers
specialized on the matter, there is a new exploit in Bluetooth’s authentication
protocols. If the attacker manages to execute correctly, it could take
advantage of this vulnerability and perform a man in the middle attack between
two devices that have been paired.
A man in the middle attack is that in
which the offender puts itself between two different parties and manages to
modify the communications between them. The attacker secretly relays any
interchange and can even intercept relevant messages, altering them or
injecting new ones.
The researchers state that the attacker
can intercept and change files that have been shared between two paired devices
via the Bluetooth technology. It can also listen to conversations and spy on
messages, plus many other things.
This attack has been called KNOB, which
means the Key Negotiation of Bluetooth. It was discovered an announced to the
world by specialists from several research centers and institutions, including
the Oxford University, the Singapore University of Technology and Design, and
the CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security.
There is a whole website dedicated to the
KNOB attack, which is http://knobattack.com . In
a KNOB attack, an agent disguises the entities taking part in a Bluetooth
handshake to implement a degraded encryption key, with only one byte of
entropy. The situation will pave the way for a simple brute force attack in
which the hacker or malicious agent will be able to guess the encryption key in
a rudimentary way.
Matthew Green went to his personal
Twitter account (@matthew_d_green) to explain the offense and wrote that
Bluetooth specs allow one side of the pairing key exchange to suggest a key
length in bytes, with no authentication process. The attacker can then manage
to push the key size down to 1 byte.
After doing this, the malicious agent will have the freedom to do practically whatever it wants, from spying on the content or changing to injecting its own files into the transfer, among other scenarios that can compromise the integrity of the paired devices and the data being exchanged.
The real danger of the KNOB attack is that it does not precisely constitute a violation of the Bluetooth DR/EDR specification, one that allows keys with only one byte of entropy. The vulnerability works on Bluetooth radios from all prominent brands, including Apple , Intel , and Broadcom .
The attack can be devastating because the
victims can’t know that they have been compromised, as the research team
conveniently points out. That happens because the events take place at the key
exchange process and not in the involved devices.
However, and despite the evidently devastating consequences of the KNOB attack, there is some light at the end of the tunnel. The Bluetooth SIG recently updated the specifications in order to recommend those that produce regular devices using at least seven bytes of entropy. Another positive development is that manufacturers and brands have been aware of this vulnerability since the final part of 2018 and some of them have developed patches as a protection measure.
And, since it is very difficult to exploit, the odds of it being used in a widespread attack are very low. And for it to be successful, the attacking device needs to be within wireless range of the two devices that are pairing via Bluetooth.
Another potential obstacle for attackers is that if one of the devices does not have the vulnerability, then the attack would be unsuccessful. There are several things that need to happen for a KNOB offense to happen: the device perpetrating it would need to intercept, handle, and retransmit key length negotiation messages between the two paired devices and, additionally, block transmissions from both of them, in a very small window of time.
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